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Commander Gareth talks to Minister Treydan, leader of the Caledonians, over radio


History ~ GREAT BRITAIN ~ This is a Roman Latin name for Scotland, which is sometimes still used today in a poetic sense. Caledonia was north of the Antonine Wall and stretched from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde. Caledonians were called also Picts. Native Celtic tribes who were strongly anti-Roman inhabited the area. (Caledonia was also a former name for the colony on the mainland of British Columbia). Learn More: Antonine Wall - Scotland.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ The Caledonian Federation and the Rand Protectorate, the two primary nations on the planet, have been locked in a cold war for decades. They are also upset that the Rand won’t tell them more about the Great Ring of Avidan. Their leader is Minister Treydan. He tells Commander Gareth of the Rand Protectorate that if he cannot stop Soren’s rebel forces, the Caledonians will strike to stop him. They strike and Soren, who has taken control of the Rand’s bunker, strikes back. It results in an all out war that leaves both sides in ruins (See Leda) (805 – Icon). An Ori Prior visits the planet and gives the Rand Protectorate a satellite weapon. In the conflict, their Stargate is buried; no contact is possible (See Ethon) (915 -- Ethon).

Camelot!  Camelot!  It's only a model.


Myth ~ ARTHURIAN LEGEND (Wales, England, France) ~ Camelot is Arthur’s castle and the land surrounding it. There have been many possible modern locations for Camelot; from several places in Cornwall (such as Tintagel) to Colchester (see Camulus) in the East to multiple sites in Wales. It has also been rumored to have been located in the town of Winchester because of the 13th century "Round Table" found there. It is most commonly said (and most widely accepted) to be modern day Cadbury Castle. Arthur's original power seat was Caerleon, Wales. The term Camelot has its first literately mention (in passing) in Chrétien de Troyes' poem Lancelot (c. 1180). Most of the descriptions of Caerleon/Camelot come from the writings of Geoffrey of Monmouth. Camelot is the starting site for the Grail Quest as well as representing idealized chivalry. Arthur was the only king to reign at Camelot, and it is said that Merlin built the Castle in one night. King Arthur: The Geography--Caerleon, ThisIsNorthCornwall - King Arthur in North Cornwall, ThisIsNorthCornwall - Tintagel, TimelessMyths - The Round Table, and Gods, Heroes, and Myths - King Arthur: Mythical Places: Camelot.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Located on PX1-767, this village is the once and future home of King Arthur. A Sword in the Stone was left here. The natives follow Arthur’s ways and believe that he will return one day, when the sword is pulled from the stone (See Valencia). Merlin and Arthur left the planet about the same time, with Arthur going on a quest for the Sangreal. Merlin left a library at the village. However, the villagers considered him a dark wizard, and thus it remained sealed until SG-1’s arrival (920 -- Camelot).

Antonius tells of the Battle of Camlann

Camlann, Battle of

Myth ~ ARTHURIAN LEGEND (Wales, England, France) ~ (British: Camboglanna, "Crooked Bank") The location of Camlann is unknown, although it has been thought to have been somewhere around South Somerset, near the western section of Hadrian's Wall, or several places in Wales. It is usually and universally placed on the banks of a river. The first written mention of the battle is in the Annales Cambriae in the entry for the year 539. It says, "the strife of Camlann in which Arthur and Merdraut fell (qtd. Mythica)." It has also been dated as occurring in the year 537. One version of the battle centers around a feud between Arthur and Mordred. While Arthur is fighting the Romans, Mordred usurps his throne. Arthur hears of Mordred's treachery and returns. They meet at Camlann where a battle ensues. Arthur kills Mordred, but not before Mordred mortally wounds Arthur. Although, the Trioedd Ynys Prydein (Welsh Triads) say that a feud between Guinevere (Arthur's wife) and her sister, Gwenhwyfach (Mordred's wife) may have been the ultimate reason. In Triad 53, Gwenhwyfach slaps her sister, and Triad 84 says the battle started because of a dispute between the sisters. Also in one of the Triads, Mordred barges into Arthur's court, drags Guinevere from her throne, and beats her for some unknown reason. The Triads also portray Mordred and Arthur as equals, rather than usurper and king as Geoffrey portrays them. The Battle of Camlann is also where all the Knights of the Round Table (except Sir Bedevere) meet their end. As Arthur lies dying, he asks Bedevere to return Excalibur to the Lake. Bedevere also helps take Arthur to Avalon. Learn More: TimelessMyths: Life of King Arthur: Camlann, EBK: King Arthur's Battles, and Gwenhwyfach: a Cymric Arthurian figure.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ On Camelot, Antonius (the village historian) tells SG-1 that Mordred did not fatally would Arthur at Camlann. Arthur did succeed in defeating him though. After which, he left to search for the Sangreal (920 -- Camelot).



Myth ~ ANCIENT BRITAIN & GAUL (The ancient Celts who lived in modern France) ~ He was also a tribal god of the Sabines and a Gallic tribe living in Belgium called the Remi. (Translation: "Heaven") Few of their myths have survived intact since the conversion from polytheism to Christianity. The Romans called Camulos and the Gaels called him Cumhal (Pronounced "Cool"). He is the God of War and delighted in the slaughter of battle. Along with being a War-God, he was a Storm-God. He was popular, despite the human sacrifices by fire made to him. The wild boar was his symbol. He is a member of Clan Baiscne. He was the son of Trénmór and Feidlimid Rechtaid and Crimnal was his brother. With Muirenn (also known as Muirne "of the White Neck;" daughter of Tadg), he fathers Finn Mac Cumhail ("Fair Son of the Sky"). He is also the father of Tulcha. Camulus was twice king of the Tuatha Dé Danann, and possessed one of their four chief treasures, an invincible sword. His epithets may have been Belatucadrus ("Fair Shining One") and Rigisamus ("Most Kingly") (or these may have been minor-gods). His rival, Goll (Aed) Mac Morna, beheaded him. In British mythical history, he is referred to as Coel, a duke of Caer Coelvin, who supposedly seized the British crown. His short reign was spent in a series of battles. Caer Coelvin, the Brythonic name for modern Colchester (Roman: Camulodunum) is a town in Great Britain named for him. Thus, he may be the origin for "Old King Cole." The Romans associated him with Mars (Ares).
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ He sends the message to the SGC concerning a treaty between the Tau'ri and the System Lords following the defeat of Anubis. He, Amaterasu, and Yu (with Oshu) come via the Gate, however they are imprisoned when the SGC learns a mothership is coming. They are set free. Camulus seeks asylum on Earth because his fleet has been destroyed. He offers to help the SGC (801/802 – New Order). O’Neill gave him a booby-trapped ZPM to take to Baal in an attempt to destroy him. However, the ZPM was a dud. He is now Baal’s prisoner; fate unknown (804 – Zero Hour).

The MRI of the Isis Jar

Canopic Jars

Myth ~ ANCIENT EGYPT ~ The canopic jars were used to hold various internal organs after mummification. They were first used in the Fourth Dynasty (2613-2494 BC) and had plain lids. Later on, all the lids were in the form of human heads. Then, in the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550- 1295 BC) they took on the personification of the four Sons of Horus: Amset (human headed; liver), Hapy (baboon headed; lungs), Duamutef (jackal headed; stomach) Qebehsenuf (hawk headed; intestines). The jars were made of alabaster, cartonnage (See Papyri Pages: Cartonnage), ceramic, limestone, pottery, or wood. The name "Canopic" comes from Greek Mythology. Canopus (Kanopus) was a steersman of the King Menelaus (Helen of Troy’s husband). They briefly stopped in Egypt on their way home from Troy. While there, Canopus insulted Theonoe, the daughter of Pharaoh Proteus. In retribution, he was bitten by a snake and died. He was buried at a city in the Nile Delta called Canopus (by the Greeks); modern day Abukir. A cult of Canopus became popular in the Greco-Roman period, where he was depicted as a jar with a human head. Because the statues of him were jar shaped, the early archaeologists confused the statues with the modernly known and completely unrelated "Canopic Jars," which contained the human viscera. For more visit: British Museum: Mummification Explore or Tour Egypt Feature: Canopic Chests and Jars.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Seth imprisoned Isis and Osiris in these jars some 10000 years ago. The Stewart Expedition unearthed the jars. However, the ship carrying the artifacts sunk on its trip from Egypt to the Chicago. It was not salvaged for 70 years. They function as stasis chambers powered by naquadah. The jars were designed to keep the symbiotes alive indefinitely (413 – The Curse).



Myth ~ ANCIENT IRELAND ~ Carlin is a spirit of the Samhain holiday (Pronounced: sow-uhn) (also called Samain [Celtic: "End of Summer"], modern Halloween). Samhain was held on November 1. During this day, the Celts thought that the world of the gods was made visible to mankind. These gods were tricksters, and thus this day was dangerous, to be feared, and full of supernatural episodes. It was thought that one could not survive this season or thwart the deity’s tricks without making a sacrifice. (Or maybe the author of this episode is a fan of George Carlin.)
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ This is the personality that was imprinted on Daniel when SG-1 was kidnapped by Administrator Calder, an inhabitant of the planet P3R-118 to prevent SG-1 from reporting back to General Hammond about the enslaved people working in the underground mines. Calder told the SGC that SG-1 had perished on the planet’s icy surface. See also Thera and Tor (410 – Beneath The Surface).

Major Samantha Carter RepliCarter


History ~ ANCIENT EGYPT ~ British archaeologist and Egyptologist, Howard Carter (1873-1939) is most famous for the discovery of the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun (reigned in the 4th Century BC) in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt. Learn more at: TourEgypt: Howard Carter.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Captain Samantha Carter is one of the members of SG-1. She is also a theoretical astrophysicist and has a Ph.D. in Quantum Mechanics. She is also one of the leading experts on gate technology. Before she was assigned to the SGC, she worked at the Pentagon, and had been a flight officer in Kuwait where she flew F-117/F16s (101 – Children of the Gods). She was taken as a host of the Tok-ra, Jolinar of Malkshur (Note: Tok-ra are the Goa’uld words for "Against Ra," this means they are the good/rebel faction of the Goa’uld). It is learned in this episode, that the Goa’uld can still have power over the host without making its existence known, i.e. glowing eyes and altered voice. Carter was under her influence throughout most the episode, however Jolinar only reveals herself once Cassandra and members of the SGC have discovered her presence. Jolinar was killed by the Ashrak and sacrificed herself to save Carter (202 – In the Line of Duty). She was promoted to Major (303 – Fair Game). As a result of her blending with a Goa’uld, she can read and translate the written Goa’uld language (605 – Nightwalkers). Fifth (A humanoid Replicators) kidnaps Carter in an effort to try to make her love him. Fifth probes her mind and creates the "RepliCarter;" a humanoid Replicator version of Samantha (801/802 – New Order).
The Show (Stargate Atlåntis) ~ Lieutenant Colonel Carter becomes the new leader of Atlantis after Dr. Weir’s capture by the Asurans (403 - Reunion).

The Cartouche on Abydos


History ~ ANCIENT EGYPT ~ Refers to the loop, which surrounds royal names in hieroglyphs. However, the Cartouche was not always used. In the first three dynasties, a Serekh surrounded the royal names. The Serekh was a stylized royal palace in the shape of a vertical rectangle. Horus was perched atop the rectangle and the Pharaoh’s name was written on the inside. "Cartouche" is a French word meaning "gun cartridge" and Napoleon’s soldiers were responsible for the nickname because its shape was similar to a bullet. The Cartouche is an elongated Shen. The Shen is a symbol that represents eternity and is most often shown in the claws of bird deities such as Horus, Mut (the second wife of Amun and mother of Khonsu), and most commonly Nekhbet (Vulture-Goddess). The Cartouche was the factor that allowed for Jean-Francois Champollion to translate the Rosetta Stone.
The Movie (StarGate ©1994) ~ A cartouche was found on the coverstone of the Giza Stargate. It contained the six chevrons for the Abydos address, with Earth’s Point of Origin below. Later, once on Abydos, with the help of Sha-uri (Sha-re), Daniel finds the cartouche with Earth’s chevrons. However, the Point of Origin is missing. It is only after Daniel sees Skaara's drawing that he figures it out.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ When Col. O’Neill returns to Abydos with the original team and Captain/Doctor Carter. Daniel shows them a wall inside the catacombs. Dubbed the "Abydos Cartouche," it is a list of hundreds of Stargate addresses (101 – Children of the Gods).

Cassandra Old Cassie saves the day Better than David Copperfield!


Myth ~ ANCIENT GREECE ~ (Translation either: "Shining Upon Man" or "She Who Entangles Men") Of the daughters of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, she was the most beautiful. Apollo gave her the gift of prophecy, but deprived her of the power to persuade. She predicted the Trojan Horse, but the citizens of Troy disregarded her warnings. Cassandra was captured by Ajax the Lesser, during the plunder of Troy. She was then sent to Greece as a gift to King Agamemnon. There, she tried to warn Agamemnon of danger, but for a second time, her prediction was disregarded. Both she and Agamemnon were murdered by Clytemnestra (Agamemnon’s wife) and Aegisthus (Agamemnon’s cousin and Clytemnestra’s lover).
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ The sole survivor of a planetary plague (caused by Nirty), she being used as a "Trojan Horse" by the Goa’uld (114 – Singularity). She can also detect Goa’uld (202 – In the Line of Duty). When the wormhole is hit by a solar flair, SG-1 is sent back in time to 1969. When calculating their return trip they overshoot and end up some time in the distant future where they meet an elderly Cassandra, who helps them return to the present (221 – 1969). Nirty infected Cassandra with a retrovirus that caused symptoms of high fever, seizures, and increased brain activity, with the end result of telekinesis. The people of Hanka (Cassandra’s home planet) called this "disease," Mind Fire. The affected teenagers went alone into the forest and returned after being secretly cured by Nirty (506 – Rite of Passage).

The asteroid, hurtling towards Earth at breakneck speed!


Science/Mythology ~ ASTRONOMY/ANCIENT GREEK ~ (Abbreviated "Cas") This constellation "lies at one-hour right ascension (the coordinate of the celestial sphere analogous to longitude on the Earth) and 60° north declination (angular distance north of the celestial equator) (qtd. Britannica)." It is in the northern sky and is in the shape of a somewhat elongated "W" made up of five intense stars. In 1572, Tycho’s Nova (a supernova; named after Tycho Brahe) became visible in Cassiopeia. There are seven total stars; named: Shedir (Alpha Cas), Caph (Beta Cas), Ruchbah (Delta Cas), Segin (Epsilon Cas), Achird (Eta Cas), Marfak (Theta Cas), and Marfak (Mu Cas). There is also two Messier Objects located in Cassiopeia: M52 and M103. It is best seen in November at 9:00 PM and is visible between 90 and -20 degrees Latitude. ~ In Greek mythology, she was the Andromeda’s mother, wife of King Cepheus, and the Queen of Aethiopia. Because she claimed to be more beautiful than the Nereids (sea nymphs), Poseidon (God of the Sea) sent his wrath upon Aethiopia. He first sent a flood and then Cetus. In order for Cetus to leave the city, Andromeda was to be sacrificed. However, Perseus, who killed Cetus with the head of Medusa, rescued Andromeda. To learn more: Cassiopeia A and Supernova 1680 or 1667, APOD: 2002 September 12 - X-Rays From Tycho’s Supernova Remnant, and The Mythology of the Constellations: Cassiopeia.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ The asteroid was discovered in the constellation of Cassiopeia by the co-founder of the Northern Susquenita (? Sounded like "sauce-ker-rita") County Amateur Astronomical Society. He saw it at: declination 61 degrees, 6 minutes, right ascension 2 hours, 48 minutes; and he has been tracking this thing for three nights. It is on a collision course with Earth and will hit in 11 days and 16 hours; hitting somewhere in the Arctic Circle (probably Greenland or the Barren Sea) and wiping out all life on Earth. Carter discovers that the asteroid is almost entirely made of naquadah; which she theorizes that the Goa’uld (probably Anubis) brought it to our solar system to destroy Earth (see Asgard) (517 – Fail Safe).

Ouch, that tickles!


Literature ~ USA ~ It is a novel set during World War II and written by Joseph Heller in 1961. The whole book was a paradox. Go here to see what Joseph Heller said about his book. The paradox is basically, "damned if you do, damned if you don’t."
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ After Daniel tells Sam and Jack about the witchcraft trials, Sam says it’s a Catch-22 (308 – Demons).



Myth/Science ~ ANCIENT GREECE and ASTRONOMY ~ Cetus is a Sea Monster. Queen Cassiopeia of Aethiopia (A Phoenician Kingdom) boasted that she and her daughter, Andromeda, was more beautiful than the Nereids (sea nymphs; daughters of Nereus). The Nereids complained to Poseidon, God of the Sea. Poseidon sent Cetus to destroy the kingdom. Ammon the Oracle prophesied that Cetus would not stop until Andromeda was tied to a rock and left for him to eat. The hero Perseus, on his way back from slaying Medusa the Gorgon, turned Cetus to stone by showing him Medusa’s severed head. Cetus is also one of the largest constellations. It is visible from October through January, near Taurus. The Mesopotamians believed that the constellation was Tiamat. Learn More: Chris Dolan's Constellations: Cetus.
The Show (Stargate Atlåntis) ~ He is co-leader, with Talus, of the Asurans who capture the city from Helia and her crew of Ancients. After Sheppard and his team attack, they locate O’Neill and Woolsey via the radio signal. They dismantle their ship to repair Atlantis. He probes Woolsey's mind. He is "killed" when the team rigs Atlantis’ shield emitters to act as an Anti Replicator Weapon (310/311 - The Return).

Daniel and Dr. Lee looking for Chac


Myth ~ ANCIENT MESOAMERICA ~ (From: cauac: "Lightening, Thunder, Storms") Equated to the Aztec god Tlaloc [Husband of Chalchiuhtlicue] and the Zapotec god Cocijo. He is the Mayan god of Agriculture, Fertility, and Thunder and Rain. His cult center was Chichén-Itzá on the Yucatán Peninsula. He was portrayed with reptilian features, two curling fangs, trunk-like nose, tangled of knots of hair, streaming tears, and carrying an axe (which caused thunder). Despite this, he was a kind, benevolent god. He taught humans how to grow vegetables and protected cornfields. Chac was sometimes worshipped as four gods (Cardinal points). Each of the four Chacs had a name and a color: Chac Xib Chac (East, Red), Sac Xib Chac (North, White), Ek Xib Chac (West, Black), and Kan Xib Chac (East, Yellow). Later, as a member of the Bacabs, he replaced Kan. He was said to live in Cenotes (akin to "sink holes;" where underground rivers met the surface). Cenotes were also entrances to the underworld. Sacrifices were thrown into the Cenotes to appease Chac. Sacrifices were just about anything: dogs, turkeys, and chickens as well as humans, such as young virgins, high-ranking captives taken in battle, and slaves. The victims were often laden with fine objects of gold and jade and had severe head injuries prior to their deaths (Most human sacrifices were during times of drought). His sacred animal was the turtle or the frog. He is also known as Ah Hoya ("He Who Urinates"), Ah Tzenul ("He Who Gives Food to Others"), and Hopop Caan ("He Who Lights Up the Sky"). Not to be not be confused with the Maya-Toltec figure Chac Mo(o)l. Learn More: Windows on the Universe: Xib Chac and Wikipedia: Chaac. Also, in the State of Yucatan, Mexico there is a tourist town named Telchac Puerto.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ He was a Goa’uld who developed the sarcophagus from an Ancient Healing Device. Anubis and Telchak went to war to control the Device. Telchak lost the war, however, he hid the Device on Earth from Anubis. Daniel and Dr. Lee find it beneath a waterfall in Honduras. This waterfall had a Fountain of Youth legend associated with it. Daniel theorizes that Telchak is probably the same as Chac, the Mayan Rain-God (711/712 – Evolution).

The Shavadai


History ~ ANCIENT CHINA/MONGOLIA ~ Died 1241. (Also spelled Tsagadai, Jagatai, or Chaghatai). He is the second son of Genghis Khan. When his father died, he became the ruler of Kashgaria (Modern-day southern part of Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) and most of Transoxania, which lies between the Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers (Modern-day Amu Darya and Syr Darya). He ruled for little over 14 years and was succeeded by his grandson, Kara Hülegü.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ The Shavadai, "People of the Steppe," may be descendants of the Chagatai, a Mongolian nomadic tribe. Moughal is their Chieftain. The Shavadai were brought to Simarka (P3X-593) by “demons” from ancient legend (103 – Emancipation).

The Chalchiuhtlicue mosaic is on the floor around the DHD


Myth ~ ANCIENT MESOAMERICA (Modern Mexico) ~ (Translation "Her Skirt is of Jade") The Aztec Goddess of all the water of Earth. She was the embodiment of youthful beauty and devotion. She is depicted as a river with a prickly-pear tree laden with fruit growing from it. She is married to Tlaloc (See Chac). She was responsible for the flood that the destroyed the fourth world (We live in the fifth world according to the Aztecs).
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Daniel finds a mosaic depicting her at the base of the DHD, which hints at a connection to Teotihuacán, a pre-Columbian (before Columbus) Messoamerican city (305 – Learning Curve).

The planet Chartago


Geography ~ TUNISIA or COSTA RICA ~ Most likely named after "Carthago" the Latin word for Carthage (modern Tunis, Tunisia), or could possibly be named after "Cartago," the capital of Cartago Province in Costa Rica.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Chartago (Stargate Designation P3X1279) is the home planet to the Bysra people (115 – Cor-ai).

Chaya, High Priestess of Athar


Religion ~ HINDU ~ ("Shadow") She is a manifestation of the goddess Sanjna ("Conscience"). Sanjna was the primary wife of Surya (Sun-God). However, she could not endure the heat or intense light of the Sun-God and retreated to a forest. She left Chaya (her shadow and handmaiden) behind in her place. Chaya is the mother of Sani (Cursed God of the planet Saturn) and Tapti (River-Goddess) by Surya. On a side note, Chaya is an Aramaic root word, which means "serpent" and is a Jewish name meaning "life."
The Show (Stargate Atlåntis) ~ After seeing an energy beam destroy Wraith ships in orbit of the planet Proculus, Sheppard and the team go to investigate thinking that it is a weapon. On the surface they meet Chaya Sar, the High Priestess of the goddess Athar. Sheppard invites her back to Atlantis, where, upon touching an Ancient device activates it. It is later revealed that Chaya is the "shadow" (physical being) of the Ancient, Athar (the energy/light being) (114 – Sanctuary).

Creek Mountain from the movie Cheyenne Mountain

Cheyenne (Creek) Mountain

History/Geography ~ US MILITARY / COLORADO ~ (Also called Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station [CMAFS]) Located on the south side of Colorado Springs, Colorado, it was originally built as a missile silo during the Cold War. It is now the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center (CMOC), and home to North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) and United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). CMOC is the central organization and collection center for a worldwide system of satellites, radars, and sensors that provide early warning of any missile, air, or space threat to North America. The main facility is 2,000 feet underground and is manned by members of the Army, Navy, Marine, Air Force, and Canadian Forces. Learn More: FAS: Cheyenne Mountain Complex and NORAD.
The Movie (StarGate ©1994) ~ Creek Mountain is where the Stargate is kept under the command of General West. Dr. Catherine Langford and her team have been working on translating the coverstones, although they are stalled until Catherine recruits Daniel.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Also known as the StarGate Command (SGC), Cheyenne Mountain is where the Stargate was moved to after the first Abydos mission and is under the command of General Hammond. Jack reported that the Abydos gate was destroyed and Daniel was killed. However, after the appearance of Apophis, O’Neill admits his report was false (101 – Children of the Gods and all other episodes).

Can’t a guy take a nap in peace any more?!


Myth ~ ANCIENT GREECE ~ Also called Chimaera; it is a monster born to Typhon and Echidna. It is depicted as an animal with the head of a lion (sometimes it has multiple heads), the body of a she-goat, and the tail of a dragon. It could breath fire. It terrorized Lycia (in Asia Minor), by soaring through the valley each night, carrying off women, children, and livestock, and feasting upon them. The people believed that it could not be killed. Bellerophon, the Corinthian hero, was sent by King Iobates of Lycia to kill Chimera. With the help of Athena and Pegasus, Bellerophon drove the spear through the Chimera’s heart. Learn More: The Page of the ancient Chimera - or Chimaera – myth.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ In this episode, Daniel is plagued by the "Chimera" of Sarah / Osiris. He is having dreams of when he and Sarah first met at the Oriental Institute. Oddly enough, instead of working on what he remembers, she brings him a tablet inscribed with the Ancients’ language. We learn that Osiris is using a Goa’uld mind control device to manipulate his dreams; creating a hybrid of memory and reality. Anubis sent Osiris to decipher the tablet which is an Ancient map leading to a "place of great power." Osiris is captured and removed from Sarah (715 – Chimera).



History/Philosophy ~ ANCIENT ROME ~ (3 Jan 106 BC – 7 Dec 43 BC) Also called Tully, Marcus Tullius Cicero was a famous orator, philosopher, and politician. Even though Cicero's family was aristocratic, they were not extremely wealthy, nor were they one of the families that had held political offices for generations. Nonetheless, his ambition and prowess enabled him to become a savvy lawyer and politician. In 77 BC, he married Terentia and had a son, Marcus, with her in 65 BC. In 47 BC, he divorced Terentia, and married and divorced Publilia Brutus within the following year. Cicero studied law and philosophy at Athens, Rhodes, and Rome. He held several political positions: in 69 BC, Curule Aedile (Temple, Building; responsible for maintenance of public buildings and regulation of public festivals and had the power to enforce public order); in 66 BC, Praetor (the chief law officer/judge and deputy to the two Consuls); and in 63 BC, Consul (writes and presents new laws). After he had successfully prosecuted Catiline for conspiracy, he was exiled in 58 BC; by Clodius (his nemesis) because Cicero was unable to prove executed members of Catiline’s group were guilty. However, Pompey recalled him the next year, proclaiming him a hero. He supported the traditional government of the Roman Republic, thus becoming the enemy of Julius Caesar’s autocracy. As the Governor of Cilicia (51 BC), he and Pompey united against Caesar. Caesar later forgave Cicero. After the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, Cicero returned to the Senate publicly attacking Mark Antony. However, his involvement with Octavian (later called Augustus) was not able to save him from the assassinations ordered by Antony in 43 BC. Learn More: Cicero [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy].
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Cicero is a researcher at the museum that SG-1 mistakenly takes hostage shortly after their arrival on P4M-328. He theorized that the Stargate was an interstellar transport device and offers to help them. He gives them advice on demands to make to Quartus, and helps them find artifacts (a Naquadah bomb) in the museum to power the Stargate. The government of the planet is planning to cover up the Stargate’s true purpose (as an interstellar portal) because that is one of the rebel movement's core beliefs. Cicero is tries to get the government to change their decision (1016 – Bad Guys).

The planet Cimmeria


Myth ~ ANCIENT GREECE ~ A mythical tribe (thought to be the Celts (pronounced: Kelts) or the Irish) who lived at the end of the world in a place of mists and darkness, where the sun never shone.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ A planet (Stargate Designation P3X-974) that is the home of the Cimmerians. They are protected by Thor and the Asgard (109 – Thor’s Hammer, 206 – Thor’s Chariot).

Tonane, a member of the Salish Tribe on PXY-887 A Chief of the Salish Tribe wearing a basketry hat

Coast Salish Tribe

History ~ PACIFIC NORTHWEST ~ The Coast Salish were centered around the Puget Sound area in Washington state, USA and British Colombia, Canada. They are not the same tribe as the Confederated Salish nor are they known as the "Flatheads." The Coast Salish speak five languages: Clallam, Halkomelem, Nooksack, Northern Straits, and Squamish. "Both sexes ordinarily let their hair grow long, exceptions being mourners and male slaves. Men wore their hair loose, held with a cedarbark headband or gathered in a knot behind. Women parted their hair in the middle, marking the part with red paint, and tied or braided the two ends (Suttles 463)." Men and women both, on occasion, wore woven basket-like conical or mushroom-shaped hats. Tattoos were not common, however some women wore lines on their cheeks or chins and a few of each gender wore tattoos on their arms and legs. Like many Native American Tribes, the Salish believe in the Vision Quest. "The vision experience was described as an encounter with an animal or with a being in human form who revealed himself to be an animal, tree, or 'natural' phenomenon, such as the sun. In the encounter the seeker loses consciousness and is given some desirable knowledge or skill (Suttles 467)." Learn More: Coast Salish Villages of Puget Sound, Coast Salish: Introduction, and Civilization.ca - Grand Hall - Coast Salish house.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ An offshoot of the Coast Salish tribe was taken by the Goa’uld from Earth and transplanted on Planet PXY-887. The SGC sends teams to this planet because it is rich in Trinium. SG-1 finds that the Salish use the Trinium for their armor, decoration, and weaponry. However, Trinium is too brittle to use in its raw state. Tonane, a member of the tribe, tells them that the Spirits send the Trinium through the river (which refines it) when the Salish need it. The Salish are happy to share the Trinium as long as the SGC does not use destructive forces to obtain it (213 – Spirits).

The Codex


History ~ ANCIENT MESOAMERICA (Modern Mexico) ~ The Mayas made a type of Proto-books called Codex (or the plural: Codices). They were made of either fig tree bark or deerskins. The tree bark was pressed flat and covered with lime paste. They were then folded accordion-style and written on both sides. The Codices contained the Maya’s knowledge of astronomy, calendar cycles, hieroglyphs, and number system. Many of the Codices did not survive the invasion of the Spanish, who regarded them as the work of the devil, and burnt all but four. The four codices that survive today are named for the cities in which they are kept. They are: the Dresden Codex (Germany), the Madrid Codex (Spain), the Paris Codex (France), and the Grolier Codex (named for the Grolier Club in New York City). Go to the following site to see pages from the Paris Codex: The Paris Codex - Northwestern University Library.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ The Codex of Elements is a device used for universal conversation among the Four Great Races (Ancients, Asgard, Nox, and Furlings). Its method of communication was through the elements of the Periodic Tables, "the true universal language." Ernest referred to the place as Heliopolis. It was found on P3X-972 (also called PB2-098 & Ernest’s Planet); but was lost when the castle it was housed in slid into the ocean [See: Tantalus] (110 – The Torment of Tantalus).

Sam and the Unity Crystals on P3X-562

Cold Lazarus

Popular Culture ~ MOTION PICTURE ~ Cold Lazarus was a miniseries made in 1996 and the sequel to Karaoke. It aired in the United Kingdom. I haven’t seen it but from what I’ve gathered from the Internet Movie Data Base ("Cold Lazarus" (1996) (mini)), a team of doctors working for a drug company in the distant future tries to retrieve the memories of a 400-year-old human head, which had been cryogenically frozen. They use virtual reality to see the memories. Here is a site on the miniseries: Karaoke & Cold Lazarus.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ In this episode, the Unity Crystals read Jack’s mind and make a duplicate of him, which goes back through the gate to Earth to "come to terms with the death of his son, Charlie" (106 – Cold Lazarus).

Its broke, maybe we should hide. This means something


Science ~ ASTRONOMY ~ The corona is the outermost region of the Sun’s atmosphere. It is made of hot ionized gas, called plasma. The temperature of the corona is roughly 2000000 Kelvin. It has no exact border (being that its shape is regulated by the magnetic field of the Sun), and it radiates about 8000000 miles from the solar surface (photosphere). The corona can be seen with the naked eye during a total solar eclipse, otherwise an instrument called a coronagraph is needed. Learn More: NASA: The Solar Corona and APOD: September 15, 1999 - The Big Corona.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ After the supernova exploded, the hyperdrive control crystals and the shields of the ship SG-1 was on were damaged. They steered the ship into the corona of the nearby blue giant to shield themselves from being detected by Apophis’ ship while they made the repairs (501 – Enemies).

Tarek Solomon relating the story of how Heru-ur created the planet and the people


Myth ~ ANCIENT EGYPT ~ Egyptian myth is a very complicated thing. The priests would make new stories to explain new phenomena or priests in different cities would tell different stories to explain the same phenomena. None of the stories were standardized. This is the same reason that the powers of the Gods and Goddess often overlapped. Even though there are many different versions of the Egyptian creation myth, there is one constant. The one element that appears in all the stories is the God Nun, who is the personification of the Primordial Ocean from which everything was created. In Memphite cosmology, Ptah was the first God to rise from the watery abyss of Nun, and he was the creator of the universe. His creation myths were one of a kind, in that his methods were intellectual, rather than physical. One version says that Ptah created the earth and heavens in accordance with Thoth’s stipulations. In another version of the story, Ptah merely spoke (or thought) the names of all things in the world, causing them to come into existence. In yet another version, Ptah was considered to be self-creating and self-creative. The sound of his voice brought the Primordial Chaos (Represented by Nun) into form and order. See Ra for another version of the Creation Myth.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Tarek Solomon shows Jonas and Teal’c (See Jaffa) the artifacts of Heru-ur he found in Anhur, the wastelands of the north. Tarek believes that Heru-ur is their creator saying, "He’s the one who made us! The relics speak of him as the creator of all life, the one who spoke us into existence" (620 – Memento).

Cronus inspecting his room at the SGC Cronus

Cronus (Kronus)

Myth ~ ANCIENT GREECE ~ The son of Uranus (Titan of the Sky) and Gaia (Titaness of the Earth), Cronus, was the youngest of the twelve Titans. His name translates to "Time," which he is the personification of. He married his sister, Rhea. They became king and queen of the Titans. Their children were the Olympians: Demeter (Goddess of the Harvest), Hades (God of the Underworld), Hera (Goddess of Motherhood and future Queen of the Gods), Hestia (Goddess of the Hearth and Home), Poseidon (God of the Sea), and Zeus (God of Thunder and future King of the Gods). By some accounts, Aphrodite (Goddess of Love) was also their child. It was predestined that one of his children would overthrow him. Thus, he swallowed his newborn children whole to prevent this. Rhea didn’t like this, so she asked Gaia to help her save Zeus. When Zeus was born, Rhea wrapped a stone in Zeus’ baby clothes. Zeus was then taken to the island of Crete. Once Zeus was grown, he tricked Cronus into regurgitating his brothers and sisters. The Romans compared Cronus to Saturn (God of Corn). Because some of Cronus’ symbols are a sickle/scythe and the crow, he associated with the grim reaper.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Daniel suggests that there may be a connection between the Goa’uld, Cronus, and the Goa’uld, Sokar (218 – Serpent’s Song). He is also the System Lord responsible for killing Teal’c’s father (who was his first-prime) and ordering the death of Jolinar of Malkshur. He was one part of the System Lord team, including Nirty and Yu, to negotiate the treaty between the Goa’uld and the Tau-ri (303 – Fair Game). Cronus killed Teal’c’s father, Ronac, by crushing his symbiote, which allows for the symbiote’s blood to mix with the blood of the host, which is a slow and painful death (404 – Crossroads). He had taken control of Juna (P3X-729) after SG-1 and the native people vanquished the Jaffa forces of Heru-ur. Teal’c and his robot double/clone from Altair killed Cronus on Juna. As a result of this, the SGC seized Cronus’ mothership (421 – Double Jeopardy). The SGC later lent it to the Tok-ra on Vorash so they could transport the Stargate to a planet that is not listed on the Goa’uld maps (422 – Exodus).

Crystal Skull

Crystal Skull

History ~ ANCIENT MESOAMERICA (Mexico & Central America) ~ The most famous crystal skull is the Mitchell-Hedges Skull. It was found by Anna Mitchell-Hedges in Mayan ruins of Belize in 1927. Almost all of the skulls have been found in Mexico or Central America, and are usually linked to the Mayans or Aztecs. The majority of crystal skull myths say that there are thirteen genuine skulls and that when they are brought together the "secretes of life" will be revealed. There is also some mumbo-jumbo about the skulls being used for early experiments in quantum teleportation, that they have healing properties, or were made by the inhabitants of Atlantis. It is also said that the skulls have the ability to transmit and absorb vibrations and act as conduits of psychic energy. It is also said that the British Skull, which is owned by the Museum of Mankind in London, England (but is no longer on display), would move on its own inside the sealed glass display case. In recent years, skulls have been discovered or reportedly discovered in Asia, Europe, and South America. To learn more go here: Society of Crystal Skulls, International: An Academic Approach.
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ SG-1 discovers a crystal skull on planet P7X-377 which is identical to the skull found in Belize in 1971 by Daniel Jackson’s grandfather, Nicholas Ballard. Daniel stares into the eyes of the skull and is "teleported" to another phase dimension. In the other phase dimension they ultimately meet Quetzalcoatl (321 – Crystal Skull).

Daniel and the Cuneiform Ziggurat:  One of these things is not like the other, one of these things just doesn’t belong!


History ~ ANCIENT MESOPOTOMIA ~ (from the Latin Cuneus, meaning "wedge") It originated in Southern Mesopotamia and was invented by the Sumerians. The earliest version is estimated to be 5000 years old, predating known alphabets by 1500 years. The latest version is from the First Century BC. It was later adapted for transcribing the Akkadian language, which was spoken by the Babylonians and Assyrians. Cuneiform became the language of international communication throughout Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Persia. Learn more: National Geographic: Sumerian Dictionary to Decipher Ancient Texts and The Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI).
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ Nem used Akkadian cuneiform writing to communicate with Daniel to learn the whereabouts of his wife, Omoroca (112 -- Fire and Water). In order to enter the Ziggurat on P2X-338, Daniel reads the cuneiform that tells the Babylonian creation myth. Parts of the story are out of sequence and in order to open the door, Daniel pressed those panels (508 – The Tomb).

Travell, a Tollan and head of the Curia


History/Religion ~ ROME ~ (Latin: "Court") A curia consists of the Roman Congregations, the Tribunals, and the Offices of the Curia. It is an assembly through which the Pope governs the Roman Catholic Church. It is the Pope’s cabinet. It was started during the pontificate of Sixtus V (1585-1590). Pope Pius X gave it a definite structure. Pope Paul VI extensively reorganized it after the close of Vatican Council II. The curia is also one of the ten primitive subdivisions of the early Roman tribes that consisted of ten gentes (gentes: plural of gens; which is a patrilineal clan of ancient Rome that is made up of several families of the same name. This clan belongs to a common religious cult and claims a common ancestor.). It is also the Roman senate or any of the numerous buildings that the senate met in republican Rome. It is also a medieval assembly, council, or royal court of justice. (Plural: curiae).
The Show (Stargåte SG-1) ~ The Curia is the Tollan’s highest governing body. The leader of the Curia is Travell. Her title is High Chancellor and she is referred to as "Your Eminence." Travell proceeded over the Triad for Skaara and Klorel (315 – Pretense). After Omoc (one of the members of the Curia) dies, Counselor Travell tells SG-1 that the Curia has decided to trade an ion cannon in exchange for trinium. The SGC negotiated for 38 cannons, but they were suspicious on the offer of the cannons and the use of the trinium. Tanith was blackmailing the Curia, saying that in exchange for him not destroying Tollana, the Tollan would manufacture bombs using their phase shifting technology (509 – Between Two Fires).

This information came from:

Sturtevant, William C., General Editor. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 7, Northwest Coast. Central Coast Salish by Wayne Suttles. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1990.

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